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Chicago Style Guide, for 16th Edition: Shortened Citations

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Shortened Citations

Introduction

         The first time a source is used, the corresponding note should include all relevant source information. However, to reduce the overall bulk of publications which use footnotes or endnotes, subsequent usage of that source only requires you to use a shortened version of that citation.  Short form information should include the author’s last name, a shortened version of the title (if longer than four words), and any other directing information, such as page numbers.

If you cite the same source consecutively multiple times, remember to use "Ibid".

Basic Structure

  1. Author's lastname (include first initial if multiple authors with same last name)

  2. Shortened version of title (use matching stylization rule from full citation, be it italicized or in quotation marks)

  3. Pointer to information, if necessary (i.e. page numbers)


Examples

Footnote/Endnote Full Citation

1. Newton N. Minow and Craig L. LaMay, Inside the Presidential Debates: Their Improbable Past and Promising Future (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), 24-25.

2. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99-100.


Footnote/Endnote Shortened Citation

8. Minow and LaMay, Presidential Debates, 24-25.

9. Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 99-100.