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APA Style Guide: In-text Exceptions

In-text Exceptions

Two kinds of sources are cited only in the text and are not listed in the reference page: 1) classical works such as ancient Greek and Roman works or classical religious works, such as the Bible and the Qur’an, which have been standardized across editions, and 2) personal communications.


Classical Works

For these works, where the date of publication is inapplicable, include in your in-text citations the year of the translation used, preceded by ‘trans.,’ or the year of the version used, followed by ‘version.’ Use the standardized parts of classical works (e.g. chapters, verses, books, lines, cantos) instead of page numbers when referring to specific parts of the source. Here are some examples:

(Aristotle, trans. 1931)

1 Cor. 13:1 (Revised Standard Version)

(Qur’an 5:3-4)


Personal Communications

Examples of personal communications include private letters, e-mails or messages from non-archived discussion groups, personal interviews, telephone conversations, and the like. In the in-text citation for these sources, give the initials as well as the last name of the communicator (e.g. the e-mail recipient, the interviewee, etc.), and provide as exact a date as possible. Here are some examples:

H. E. Pennypacker (personal communication, January 13, 2000)

(Art Vandelay, personal communication, August 10, 1998)