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Hamersly Library

Chicago Style Guide, for 16th Edition: Author-Date References

Author-Date References


         The Author-Date citation system is primarily used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences. Instead of using notes, sources are cited directly in the text,  in parentheses, by the author’s last name, publication date, and page number(s) if necessary. A full citation for the source will also appear in the Works Cited page.

         As a quirk of the Author-Date reference style, all bibliographic sources will have the year of publication listed directly after the author’s name, as opposed to at the end. Doing so makes it easier to follow a text citation to the correct full source. This is particularly useful when differentiating multiple citations from the same author. 

Author-Date Basic Structure

(authors last names, year of publication, page numbers)

note: if you use the author(s) last name in your sentence then only include the publication year and page numbers in parentheses

         Here is a usage example of the author-date citation and subsequent complete citation in the reference list, taken from the Chicago Manual. I have bolded the author-date citations:


In-Text Author-Date Reference

As legal observers point out, much dispute resolution transpires outside the courtroom but in the “shadow of the law” (Mnookin and Kornhauser 1979)…. Here we empirically demonstrate that workers’ and regulatory agents’ understandings of discrimination and legality emerge not only in the shadow of the law but also, as Albiston (2005) suggests, in the “shadow of organizations.”

Matching Reference (Bibliography) List Entries

Albiston, Catherine R. 2005. “Bargaining in the Shadow of Social Institutions:
      Competing Discourses and Social Change in the Workplace Mobilization of Civil Rights.”
      Law and Society Review 39 (1): 11-47.

Mnookin, Robert, and Lewis Kornhauser. 1979. “Bargaining in the Shadow of the Law:
      The Case of Divorce.” Yale Law Journal 88 (5): 950-97.

Remember, in Author-Date citation style, the year of publication always comes after the author(s) in the bibliography, instead of at/near the end in footnote/endnote style. See the Bibliography section for more information.