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Chicago Style Guide, for 17th Edition

Audiovisual Materials


Footnote/Endnote citations of all audiovisual materials are typically structured the same and include as much information about persons involved in the creation of the materials. Materials which were found online should include URL and citations for physical materials should include supplementary information as necessary (i.e. number of discs in an album).

Audiovisual materials cited using footnote/endnote style will contain some or all of the following elements:

  1. Performer Name: (firstname, middlename, lastname).
  2. "Title of Piece", in quotation marks (if part of a larger work).
  3. Title of Work (in italicized characters).
  4. 'by’, if necessary (e.g. composed by, directed by)
  5. Composer Name: and other content creators, such as the writer, when necessary.
  6. Publisher Name: of the publishing/recording company.
  7. ID Number: for some recordings.
  8. Copyright: date or date of production.
  9. Medium: of the audiovisual material being used (e.g. CD, DVD, radio broadcast, etc).
  10. Timestamp: (if source happens at a specific point in the recording)
  11. URL/DOI: for online materials.

‚ÄčBasic Layout

[indented tab]1. Performer (firstname lastname), Title of piece, “Title of larger work,” by Creator(s) (firstname lastname), Publishing/recording company, ID# (if necessary), production date, medium, time of citation, URL/DOI.


Video Recordings

          4. Louis J. Mihalyi, Landscapes of Zambia, Central Africa (Santa Barbara, CA: Visual Education, 1975), 35mm slides, 40 frames.

          5. Michael Curtis and Gregory S. Malins, “The One with the Princess Leia Fantasy,” Friends, season 3, episode 1, directed by Gail Mancuso, aired September 19, 1996 (Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2003), DVD.

          6. A. E. Weed, At the Foot of the Flatiron (American Mutoscope and Biograph Co., 1903), 35 mm film, from Library of Congress, The Life of a City: Early Films of New York, 1898-1906, MPEG video, 2:19,

          7. Naomi Klein, "Addicted to Risk," December 2010, TED video, 19:49,

Sound Recordings

          1. Billie Holiday, vocal performance of “I’m a Fool to Want You,” by Joel Herron, Frank Sinatra, and Jack Wolf, recorded February 20, 1958, with Ray Ellis, on Lady in Satin, Columbia CL 1157, 331/3 rpm.

          2. New York Ensemble, with Edward Carroll (trumpet) and Edward Brewer (organ), Art of the Trumpet, recorded at the Madeira Festival, June 1-2, 1981, Vox/Turnabout, PVT 7183, 1982, compact disc.

          3. The Fireside Treasury of Folk Songs, vol. 1, orchestra and chorus dir. Mitch Miller, Golden Record A198:17A-B, 1958, 331/3 rpm.