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Chicago Style Guide, for 17th Edition



Both footnote/endnote citations and author-date citations require a bibliography or cited reference section.

The way a bibliographic entry is structured will be the same regardless of which in-text citation style you use, with one exception: if you used author-date as your in-text citation style, you will place the publication date immediately after the author section, as opposed to at/near the end. This makes it easier for readers to find the appropriate citation in your reference list.

For example, here is a bibliographic reference entry for the same resource in each style:


Footnote/Endnote Bibliography

Judt, Tony. A Grand Illusion? An Essay on Europe. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996.

Author-Date Bibliography

Judt, Tony. 1996. A Grand Illusion? An Essay on Europe. New York: Hill and Wang.

As you can see, the only difference between these two reference entries is the date placement. All other elements are listed in the same order.

 General Bibliography Rules

  • The bibliography should start on a new page, 12 pt. font (Times New Roman), and be titled ‘Bibliography’ at the top.
  • Leave two blank lines between your bibliography title and the first entry.
  • Use proper formatting for each type of source and always using a hanging indent. The first line of the citation will begin on the margin, subsequent lines are indented (opposite of a footnote/endnote).
  • The bibliography should be alphabetical.
  • Entries should be typed single-space but there should be a blank line between each separate citation.
  • If you have multiple bibliographic entries from the same author, it is acceptable to use what is called the ‘3-em’ dash to replace the name of the content creators. For Example:

Judt, Tony. A Grand IllusionAn Essay on Europe. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996.

—. Reappraisals: Reflections on the Forgotten Twentieth Century. New York: Penguin Press, 2008.

—, ed. Resistance and Revolution in Mediterranean Europe, 1939-1948. New York: Routledge, 1989.

Bibliography Resources

There are many websites where you can get help with citing sources and formatting papers. Here are a few websites that can be trusted and provide excellent examples using Chicago Manual of Style:

Purdue University OWL

How to Cite Electronic Sources (Library of Congress)

Turabian Quick Guide (Kate Turabian)



NoodleTools helps you write citations in MLA, APA, or Chicago format, and create annotated bibliographies. It also has tools to create notecards, draft an outline of your paper and keep track of "To Do" tasks. Citations can be exported directly to your Google Drive, or to Word or other formats.

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