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Chicago Style Guide, for 17th Edition

Interviews / Personal Communications


Published or broadcast interviews which are used as sources should be treated the same as a magazine, journal or book, and be cited as such. As always, materials which were accessed online should include a URL, and if the interview was accessed using a form of audiovisual material, an indication of the medium should be included as well.

Unpublished Interviews

Citations for unpublished and personal interviews should contain some or all of the following elements

  1. Interviewee Name: (firstname middlename lastname), along with identifying information of interviewee, in parentheses (e.g. job title or company name). Exclude if interviewee wishes to remain anonymous.
  2. Contact Method: (i.e. email message to; in conversation with; interview with)
  3. Interviewer Name: (firstname middlename lastname)
  4. Place: or date of the interview.
  5. Location: where transcript or recording of interview may be found (if held by an organization).

Basic Layout

[tabbed indent]1. Interviewee Firstname Lastname (identifying information if needed), [contact method] interviewer firstname lastname, interview date, location where transcript or recording may be found.


Unpublished Interview

          1. Andrew Macmillan (principal adviser, Investment Center Division, FAO), in discussion with the author, September 1998.

Published Interview

          2. Michelle Obama, “Oprah Talks to Michelle Obama,” Interview by Oprah Winfrey. O, The Oprah Magazine, April 1, 2009.

Anonymous Interview

          3. Interview with health care worker, March 23, 2010.

Personal Communications

            Notation citations of personal communications should always omit any personal data (email address, cell phone number, etc). Personal communications are typically also left out of the bibliography.

          4. Constance Conlon, e-mail message to author, April 17, 2000.