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Hamersly Library

Chicago Style Guide, for 16th Edition: Footnotes/Endnotes




The first Chicago style consists of notes, either footnotes or endnotes, and a bibliography. Here is an excerpt from the current manual regarding the note system:

“The notes allow space for unusual types of sources as well as for commentary on the sources cited, making this system extremely flexible. Because of this flexibility, the notes and bibliography system is preferred by many writers in literature, history, and the arts.“ 1

     1. The Chicago Manual of Style. (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2010), 655.


Make sure to also take a look at the rules for Shortened Citations and Ibid as they will help you decrease the amount of time spent writing footnote/endnote citations.


Basic Structure

Footnotes and endnotes follow the same elemental structure, and each element is separated by a comma. All notes are numbered and correspond to a matching, super-scripted reference number in the text (as shown above). All notes should be numbered consecutively and reference numbers should be placed at the end of a sentence or clause.



     1. Newton N. Minow and Craig L. LaMay, Inside the Presidential Debates: Their Improbable Past and Promising Future (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), 24-25.

     2. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99-100.



   Footnotes/Endnotes are paired together with a bibliography at the end of the research publication. Make sure to consult the bibliography section of this guide for assistance making your reference area.