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Chicago Style Guide, for 16th Edition: Interviews / Personal Communication

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Interviews and Personal Communications

Introduction

         Published or broadcast interviews which are used as sources should be treated the same as a magazine, journal or book, and be cited in your bibliography as such. As always, materials which were accessed online should include a URL, and if the interview was accessed using a form of audiovisual material, an indication of the medium should be included as well. Unpublished interviews are typically also left out of the bibliography. Instead, include resource information in the footnote or in author-date.

Unpublished Interviews

Citations for unpublished and personal interviews should contain some or all of the following elements. Remember that each element is separated by a period (unless shown otherwise below):

  1. Name of the person interviewed (lastname, firstname middle) along with identifying information of interviewee, in parentheses (e.g. job title or company name). Exclude if interviewee wishes to remain anonymous.

  2. Name of the interviewer (firstname middlename lastname),  preceded by ‘interview with’, ‘discussion with’, or ‘interviewed by’.

  3. Place or date of the interview.

  4. Location of where transcript or recording of interview may be found (if held by an organization).

  5. URL (if necessary).


 As with all other citations, the publication date of the reference will be placed directly after the title when using Author-Date style.



 Basic Layout

(Footnote/Endnote)

Interviewee Lastname, Firstname. (identifying information). “Interview with” interviewer firstname lastname. Interview Month/Day/Year. Location where transcript or recording may be found. URL.

(Author-Date)

Interviewee Lastname, Firstname. Interview Year. (identifying information). “Interview with” interviewer firstname lastname. Interview Month/Day. Location where transcript or recording may be found. URL.




Examples


Unpublished Interview

Macmillan, Andrew. (principal adviser, Investment Center Division, FAO), in discussion with the author. September 1998.

Macmillan, Andrew. 1998. (principal adviser, Investment Center Division, FAO), in discussion with the author.
         September.


Spock, Benjamin. Interview by Milton J. E. Senn. November 20, 1974. Interview 67A, transcript, Senn Oral History
         Collection, National Library of Medicine. Bethesda, MD.

Spock, Benjamin. 1974. Interview by Milton J. E. Senn. November 20. Interview 67A, transcript, Senn Oral History
         Collection, National Library of Medicine. Bethesda, MD.

 

Anonymous Interview

Anonymous interviews will always only appear in the footnote/endnote or in-text if using author-date

9. Interview with health care worker, March 23, 2010.

(Anonymous. 2010. Interview with health care worker by author.  March 23)

Personal Communications

            Citations of personal communications should always omit any personal data (email address, cell phone number, etc). Personal communications are typically also left out of the bibliography. Instead, include resource information in the footnote or in-text if using author-date.

10. Contance Conlon, e-mail message to author, April 17, 2000.

(Conlon, Contance. 2000. E-mail message to author, April 17.)