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APA Style Guide 7th Edition

General Guidelines: Direct Quote

  • Quoted material should be reproduced word-for-word.
  • Always include the author's last name, year of publication, and page number(s).
  • Use 'p.' for a single page number (Example: p. 15) and 'pp.' for multiple page numbers (Example: pp. 125-126).
  • If citing a source without page numbers, cite the paragraph number (Example: para. 4) or other identifying information (Example: Slide 7, Table 2, Results section). 
  • You can cite your information as part of the sentence (called a narrative citation) or at the end in parentheses (known as a parenthetical citation).
  • If you have two or more authors, use the word 'and' for narrative citations and '&' for parenthetical citations 
  • If you have three or more authors, use 'et al.' after the first authors last name to indicated there are additional authors. 
  • If you are quoting sources with embedded citations, include them in the quote but you do not need to cite the embedded citations in your reference page (only the source your are quoting).  
  • If you are quoting material with quotations marks, use double quotation marks to indicate the quote and change the quotations marks in the quote to a single quotation mark.  

Narrative Direct Quotation With Page Numbers 

Author (Year) "Quote" (p. #).

Single Author: Simmons (2019) points out, "Even with airtight routines and procedures in place, you will have students who engage in inappropriate behaviors" (p. 46). 

Two Authors:  Orben and Przybylski (2019) noted that “until they are displaced by a new technological innovation, digital screens will remain a fixture of human experience” (p. 694).

Three or more Authors: Larson et al. (2018) stated, "another potential alternative might involve a creative merger of electronic media and outdoor time to promote nature connection" (p. 982). 

Narrative Direct Quotation With an Embedded Source: Larson et al. (2018) points out, "However, though they did not assess broader outdoor time, Kellert et al. (2017) found no discernible differences among boys’ and girls’ nature-based recreation" (p. 968). 

Note: Larson et al. would be cited in your reference page but not Kellert et al. as that is the embedded source. 

 Parenthetical Direct Quotation With Page Numbers 

When citing multiple authors after a quotation, the ampersand symbol '&' is used instead of the word 'and'.

"Quote" (Author, Year, p. #)

Single Author: "Even with airtight routines and procedures in place, you will have students who engage in inappropriate behaviors" (Simmons, 2019, p. 46). 

Two Authors:  “Until they are displaced by a new technological innovation, digital screens will remain a fixture of human experience” (Orben & Przybylski, 2019, p. 694).

Three or more Authors:  "Another potential alternative might involve a creative merger of electronic media and outdoor time to promote nature connection" (Larson et al., 2018, p. 982). 

Parenthetical Direct Quotation With an Embedded Source: "However, though they did not assess broader outdoor time, Kellert et al. (2017) found no discernible differences among boys’ and girls’ nature-based recreation" (Larson et al., 2018, p. 968). 

Note: Larson et al. would be cited in your reference page but not Kellert et al.  as that is the embedded source. 

Narrative Direct Quotation Without Page Numbers

Author (Year) "Quote" (Identifying information such as paragraph number, slide number, or section).

Single Author: Cubellis (2018) stated, "Research has not been able to demonstrate the benefit of homework on student performance" (Slide 21).

Two Authors: Rabadi and Ray (2017) indicated that "There was broad consensus among educators that modeling appropriate classroom behavior sets the tone for children" (para. 13). 

Three or more Authors: Nowacek et al. (2019) highlighted, "Turning our attention to more immediate pedagogical implications, we learn from our research that writers engage in transfer talk more often than some research would lead us to expect, but not always in the ways we had anticipated" (Implications section). 

Narrative Direct Quotation With an Embedded Source:  Rabadi and Ray (2017) frame the problem as: "Over a decade ago, David Smit declared that 'overwhelmingly the evidence suggests that learners do not necessarily transfer the kinds of knowledge and skills they have learned previously to new tasks' (119)" (Introduction section).

Note: Rabadi and Ray. would be cited in your reference page but not David Smit as that is the embeded source. 

Parenthetical Direct Quotation Without Page Numbers

Single Author:  "Research has not been able to demonstrate the benefit of homework on student performance" (Cubellis, 2018, Slide 21).

Two Authors: "There was broad consensus among educators that modeling appropriate classroom behavior sets the tone for children" (Rabadi & Ray, 2017, para. 13). 

Three or more Authors: "Turning our attention to more immediate pedagogical implications, we learn from our research that writers engage in transfer talk more often than some research would lead us to expect, but not always in the ways we had anticipated" (Nowacek et al., 2019, Implications section). 

Parenthetical Direct Quotation With an Embedded Source:  "Over a decade ago, David Smit declared that 'overwhelmingly the evidence suggests that learners do not necessarily transfer the kinds of knowledge and skills they have learned previously to new tasks' (119)" (Rabadi & Ray, 2017, Introduction section).

Note: Rabadi and Ray. would be cited in your reference page but not David Smit as that is the embedded source.