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APA Style Guide 7th Edition

General Guidelines for Journals 

Author Last name, First Initials. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number (issue number), page numbers. DOI. 


Journal Article with a DOI
Collier-Meek, M. A., Johnson, A. H., Sanetti, L. H., Minami, T., & Eckert, T. (2019). Identifying critical
          components of classroom management implementation. School Psychology Review, 48(4), 348-361.


Journal Without a DOI 

Sorakin Balli, Y., Basari, S., & Guldal Kan, S. (2020). The relation between classroom management skills and
          empathic tendencies of high school teachers' classroom management skills and empathic tendencies.
          Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 15(1), 144-152.


Online Journal Article Without a DOI Using URL

Glover, P. (2018). How to evaluate the effectiveness of teacher talk. International Online Journal of Education
           and Teaching, 5
(3), 497-512.


Notes About Author, Date, Title, and Source 


  • List each author alphabetically by the authors last name and first name initial(s) in the order they appeared in the article. Do not include titles, positions, or ranks in the authors name.
  • Include the first 20 authors. If you have more then 20 authors include the first 19 and then et al. for the remaining authors. 
  • Separate the authors by commas and the ampersand "&" sign. 
  • If citing a group author, use the entire group name. 
  • If a source has no author or group author, move the title to the author position and alphabetize it accordingly in the reference list. 


  • Enclose the date of publication in parentheses followed by a period. For example: (2020).
  • If the date of publication includes the month and/or day then put the year first, followed by the month and/or day separated by a comma. For Example: (2020, July 18). 
  • If the publication date is unknown or cannot be determined, list the date as n.d. (which stands for no date). For example: (n.d.).  

Article Title 

  • The first word of the title and subtitle is capitalized as are proper nouns but all other words are lowercase. For example: Digital screen time limits and young children's psychological well-being: Evidence from a population-based study. 
  • If a title ends with a question mark or exclamation point, use those punctuation marks instead of a period at the end. 

Journal title 

  • The name of the journal is italicized with all major words capitalized. 

Volume and Issue Number 

  • Italicize the volume number and put the non-italicized issue number in parentheses. For example 15(5) 

Page Numbers 

  • List the page numbers separated by a dash. You do not include p. or pp. For example: 45-73

DOIs and URLs 

  • Include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if there is one available
  • Omit the DOI if an article doesn't have one 
  • If an online work has a DOI and a URL, use the DOI 
  • Present the DOI as a web address. Precede the DOI number with  For Example:
  • For online only sources without a DOI include the URL.